What the Tax Reform Legislation Means for Research

The GOP’s move to overhaul the tax system is moving quickly, with the House and Senate working in parallel on tax reform legislation. Before diving into the respective bills’ potential implications for scientific research, let’s first look at where we stand in the legislative process.

On Thursday, November 16, House Republicans passed their tax bill (H.R. 1) along party lines, 227-205, completing the first step in the budget reconciliation process. The bill, which passed with no Democratic support and 13 Republicans in opposition, will now go to the Senate for its consideration. The budget reconciliation instructions are significant because they will allow the Senate to pass the bill without Democratic support, if needed. (If you want to dive deeper, see this article from The New York Times.)

In the other chamber, the Senate is concurrently working on its own bill, one that greatly differs from that of the House. The Senate’s bill, after four days in markup, passed the Senate Finance Committee on Thursday via a party-line vote of 14-12. The full Senate is expected to take up the bill after Thanksgiving. (Read more from POLITICO.)

While the bills vary in terms of their provisions, which will need to be resolved during conference, both have consequences for research:

At the highest level, the first thing to note about both the House and Senate bills is that they are each expected to add roughly $1.5 trillion to the federal debt over the next 10 years. While the provisions within the bills are likely to shift as negotiations continue among and between the two chambers, this figure is unlikely to change. So, what does this have to do with research specifically? Recent history has shown that when there is an increase in the deficit, the subsequent move from Congress is to take steps to cut discretionary spending. Non-defense discretionary spending, which includes health care and health research, would likely take the bulk of that cut.  Continue reading